Fossils are the remains and imprints of plants and animals that lived on Earth in the long past era. But turns into a fossil only a small part of plants and animals. As a rule, their remains are either eaten by other animals or decomposed by the action of fungi and bacteria. Shells or hard bony skeletons persist longer, but eventually they are destroyed. It was only when the remains are buried in the ground very quickly, before they have time to decompose, they have a chance to survive and turn into a fossil. To the deceased plant or animal was buried rapidly, it is necessary that over it there was a sediment, for example sand or silt. Then his remains were soon denied access of air and not rot. Over millions of years of sedimentary layers of the lower pressure of the upper turn into solid rock.
Water that seeps into sedimentary strata, contains minerals. Sometimes she washes them out of the sedimentary material. Under the weight of the upper sedimentary layers of the water displaced from the bottom. Minerals remain within and contribute to the bond of the sedimentary layers and their solidification into rock. These minerals are deposited even in the remains of plants and animals, filling the spaces between their cells, and sometimes even “replacing” their bones or shells. So obratimosti naturally grow in the stone and remain there Continue reading
The oldest fossils of multicellular organisms — sponges — found in the territory of the Green continent by Adam Maloof (Maloof Adam ) and his colleagues from Princeton. The discovery pushed back the existence of animals on the planet back centuries at least another 15 million years.
Recall that the earliest fossil of a “solid” body is considered Namacalathus (age 550 million years), soft — Kimberella (555 million). The current remains approximately 650 million years, which is even larger than previously found indirect evidence of the existence of sponges.
In a press release of the University scientists write that stumbled upon the fossils under a layer of glacial deposits by age 635 million years (and that’s the end of cryogenia ). It means that the animals survived the days of “Earth-snow” (we have been told about this period of the life of the planet).
Scientists are not yet sure at 100%, that they really fossilized biological material. The best evidence of the current findings in an article in the journal Nature Geoscience, could be new finds in the breed belonging to the same era (Photo by Adam Maloof). Continue reading
Found in Azov recently an old factory and another underground passage shed light on the events. Now, after examining the finds, the archaeologists can make historical edits to previously known facts.
One of the first manufactories of the Azov looked modestly the area of 60 square meters there were two ovens in which metal was melted. Here, in narrow aisles, various forged products. What kind of work was done by craftsmen, archaeologists have yet to figure out is the dugout they discovered recently and so far have removed only the top layer of soil.
“The construction of this workshop was the individual craftsman. Most likely, it belonged to the merchant. Industrial furnaces of this type are extremely rare, especially of such construction”, — says senior researcher of the Azov Museum-reserve Andrei Maslovsky.
In one of the drain pits found the skull. According to the historians, its owner became a victim of the massacre, arranged in the 14th century Mamam because of a conflict with the local Han. After the bloodbath of the manufactory was abandoned, Continue reading