Fossils are the remains and imprints of plants and animals that lived on Earth in the long past era. But turns into a fossil only a small part of plants and animals. As a rule, their remains are either eaten by other animals or decomposed by the action of fungi and bacteria. Shells or hard bony skeletons persist longer, but eventually they are destroyed. It was only when the remains are buried in the ground very quickly, before they have time to decompose, they have a chance to survive and turn into a fossil. To the deceased plant or animal was buried rapidly, it is necessary that over it there was a sediment, for example sand or silt. Then his remains were soon denied access of air and not rot. Over millions of years of sedimentary layers of the lower pressure of the upper turn into solid rock.
Water that seeps into sedimentary strata, contains minerals. Sometimes she washes them out of the sedimentary material. Under the weight of the upper sedimentary layers of the water displaced from the bottom. Minerals remain within and contribute to the bond of the sedimentary layers and their solidification into rock. These minerals are deposited even in the remains of plants and animals, filling the spaces between their cells, and sometimes even “replacing” their bones or shells. So obratimosti naturally grow in the stone and remain there Continue reading
The oldest fossils of multicellular organisms — sponges — found in the territory of the Green continent by Adam Maloof (Maloof Adam ) and his colleagues from Princeton. The discovery pushed back the existence of animals on the planet back centuries at least another 15 million years.
Recall that the earliest fossil of a “solid” body is considered Namacalathus (age 550 million years), soft — Kimberella (555 million). The current remains approximately 650 million years, which is even larger than previously found indirect evidence of the existence of sponges.
In a press release of the University scientists write that stumbled upon the fossils under a layer of glacial deposits by age 635 million years (and that’s the end of cryogenia ). It means that the animals survived the days of “Earth-snow” (we have been told about this period of the life of the planet).
Scientists are not yet sure at 100%, that they really fossilized biological material. The best evidence of the current findings in an article in the journal Nature Geoscience, could be new finds in the breed belonging to the same era (Photo by Adam Maloof). Continue reading
In Mitino in the course of two to three years will be a historical archaeological landscape Park, reports Oreanda. According to the chief archeologist of Moscow Alexander Veksler, here, after the extensive archeological study of the area, were found numerous monuments of the past. Now they are under the protection of the Metropolitan government.
In addition, in 2008, in the district Khokhlovskiy square in the centre appears the Museum exposition “the Fortress of the White city of the XVI century”. There you will see the 70-meter stretch of white-stone wall was found during construction, it will be saved in not disassembled.
Fortifications of the White town — the third zone of defence of Moscow, were erected in 1585-1593, under the leadership of the Russian architect Feodor the Horse and was adjoined on the left Bank of the Moscow river to the Kremlin and China-town. At the end of XVIII century the fortress fell into disrepair and was demolished. Through its walls have passed Continue reading